Over billions of years has been going on a slow but steady movement of the plates that form the crust of the Earth, causing the call us “plate tectonics, a theory which supplements and explains continental drift.
The continents are joined together or fragment, open oceans, mountains rise, is changing the climate by influencing all this, very important in the evolution and development of living beings. New crust is created on the seabed, crust is destroyed in the oceanic trenches and collisions between continents that modify the relief.
The basis of the theory
According to the theory of plate tectonics, Earth’s crust is composed of at least a dozen rigid plates that move at your leisure. These blocks rest on a layer of hot rock and flexible, called the asthenosphere, which flows slowly as a hot tar.
Geologists have not yet determined exactly how these layers interact, but the most advanced theories claim that the movement of heavy material and molten asthenosphere forces the top plates to move, sinking or rising.
The basic concept of the theory of plate tectonics is simple: heat rises. Warm air rises above cold air and warm water currents float above the cold water. The same principle applies to the hot rocks that are under the surface: the melt in the asthenosphere, or magma, rises, while cold and hardened material is sinking ever further into the background, within the mantle. The rock that sinks finally reaches the high temperatures of the lower asthenosphere is heated and begins to climb again.
This continuous movement and somewhat circular, it is called convection. At the edges of the divergent plate and hot areas of the solid lithosphere, the melt flows to the surface, forming new crust.